|A Balinese Girl|
The power plant built by Wartsila consortium in Bali is a new thing for Indonesian history of electricity. This power plant is a pilot project to replace all fossil fuelled power plants. The plant is expected to be able to maintain clean air and green environment.
On the other hand, there are strong cultural factors encouraging green environmental development. If Bali is able to record a positive history, there will be a strong hope on cleaner Indonesian air.
At 09.00 am sharp, Nengah arrived at the office of Pesanggaran Power Plant in Bali. She came with her husband and her son. That day, Nengah wore Balinese kebaya with original patterned cloth, and so did her husband. She smiled as she entered the office, then headed to the main room. There were a lot of people sitting in the room. Nengah was so happy because in some minutes she would meet President Joko Widodo, that we often call Jokowi.
We know that Bali is famous as the best tourists destination in Indonesia. It also known as island of gods. The island always becomes a place to go of any traveler all over the world. Every part of the island represents all the beauty expected by any traveler. Not surprisingly, there are so many luxurious hotels and shopping centers in Bali. Tourism has become a magnet that moves across all sectors of economic, social, and cultural.
The sector of energy is the most important one to sustain the tourism industry. Electricity will adequately supply the needs of tourism; for international airports, hotels, shopping centers, houses, and any other service industry. The improvement of Electrical sector is absolutely necessary to strengthen the tourism.
PT Indonesian Power, the subdiary company of the State Electric Company (PLN) had selected a number of residents around the plant to receive donation of rice, cooking oil and soap. The donation would be handed over by President Jokowi to 500 families represented by 10 people. Nengah became one of the representatives to receive it.
I met Nengah in the event that was not only attended by President Jokowi, but also by the Governor of Bali, the Senior Officials of the State Electric Company (PLN) in Bali, the Traditional Leaders, the public, but also students. I was so glad to see the happy expression Nengah showed because soon she would meet President Jokowi.
That day, Saturday, June 11, 2016, President Joko Widodo (so often called Jokowi) came to review the operation of the Diesel and Gas Power Plant (with a capacity of 200 Megawatts (MW) in Pesanggaran. Jokowi wanted to ensure the supporting power capacity of Bali through a direct monitoring of the Diesel and Gas Power Plant powered by gas from mini LNG inaugurated by the governor of Bali, Made Mangku Pastika some time ago.
At 1:00 p.m, sharp, President Jokowi came together with the Minister for State-owned Companies, Rini Suwandi, the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources, Sudirman Said, the President Director of PLN, Sofyan Basir and Bali Governor, Made Mangku Pastika. They then entered the hall and sat in the front seats. When Seeing Jokowi, Nengah then took his mobile phone and then captured the arrival of the president.
Unfortunately, Jokowi didn't give any speech even though people waited for it. That Former Mayor of Solo and governor of Jakarta entered the large room where the made in Finland-power plant was built. Jokowi also provided the donation of the basic needs to the community representatives of Pesanggaran Village, South Denpasar District, Denpasar.
Nengah was very pleased to meet Jokowi. For her, this was a rare, once in a life time opportunity. As the resident around the power plant, she was the witness of how the plant was first built. In the past, the power plant was very noisy. A big chimney of the plant never stopped producing smoke that polluted air. Now, the plant has changed. Once it was rebuilt, it was no longer noisy. There wasn't also any black smoke from the chimney.
I noted the speech of the PLN President Director, Sofyan Basir. He explained about the Power Plant of Pesanggaran. He explained," the power Plant consists of four blocks. Each block has three machines and is designed using three types of fuel, that is the highs speed diesel (HSD), the marine fuel oil (MFO) and the gas.
According to him, one block of the plant operated by the Consortium Wartsila and PT PP (Persero) has been running since April 4. 2015. It was fully operated, for all blocks, on June 5, 2015. The gas is supplied from the mini LNG. The primary fuel of the plant is gas. "The HSD and the MFO are only used as backup. The use of LNG can save up fuel to 323 million liters per year.” he said.
"In general, the present condition of electricity in Bali is a surplus of around 470 MW. While the power supply is 1,300 MW with a peak load of 830 MW. Currently, PLN Bali serves 1.2 million subscribers with the ratios of electrification per-April 2016 amounted to 90.2 per cent and the target of 92 percent at the end of 2016 and the target of 99.9 per cent in 2020," he continued.
Assuming the load growth of around 12 percent per year, the estimated peak load in 2019 will reach 1,350 MW. So, PLN plans to build a network of 500 KV high voltage wires Java-Bali Crossing two circuits to be operated in 2019/2020 with a capacity of 2,500 MW. Currently, the power plant in Bali is from Gilimanuk power plant of 130 MW, Pemaron Plant of 80 MW, Celukan Bawang Power Plant of 380 MW, and subsea cable of 340 MW.
Nengah did not really know what's being discussed. She was only educated until a primary school level (SD). When I talked to her about electricity, she only understood one thing, that it has been a year that the electricity never went out. Previously, the electricity went out for 4-6 hours a day. But the problem has been resolved now.
"If the power goes out, I have to close my food stall. I cannot sell food in the dark, "she said.
AFTER the president director of PLN finished with his speech, President Jokowi stood up and was ready to visit the operator room. Before it, he saw the mockup of the power plant of Pesanggaran accompanied by the Minister of State-Owned Company Rini Sumarmo, the Minister of Energy and Human Resources Sudirman Said, The Minister of Cabinet Secretary Pramono Agung, and the Director of PLN. A woman with a veil went on to explain about the plant mockups.
"The plant was built by a consortium led by PT Wartsila Indonesia in cooperation with one of the State-Owned Companies, PT Pembangunan Perumahan (PP)," she said.
"Where are these tools from?" Asked Jokowi.
"Everything is made by Wartsila," the woman answered
"And where the gas supplied from?" Asked Jokowi one more time.
"The gas is supplied by Pertamina. It is from Bontang, East Kalimantan," she said.
Jokowi then nodded. After that he moved. He was directed to the operator room and he must wear a white helmet as worn by field technicians. In the operator room, he was also briefed about the power plant. He was interested to hear the explanation about the chain of gas energy; the gas wells in Bontang, East Kalimantan, which is transported to Bali. Before leaving the room, he asked about the company that prepared this power plant technology. And the spokeswoman of PLN answered simply, "Wartsila."
|The President of Joko Widodo|
Pesanggaran plant is operated using a mini gas supplied from LNG (Liquid Natural Gas), which makes PLN able to save on thevmaintenance costs up to Rp 60 billion. Pesanggaran power plant is expected to increase the reliability of electricity supply in Java-Bali electricity system and primarily to create the use of cleaner energy.
The main fuel is gas, and the two other kinds of fuel are only for the reserve. The gas can save the fuel consumption up to 323 million liters per year that impacts on reducing fuel usage and also on minimizing levels of pollution due to the cleaner burning process.
The amount of the emissions of the exhausted carbon dioxides can be reduced up to 268 thousand tons of CO2 per year. Besides, the plant can reduce noise, vibration and hazardous toxic of waste materials. The reducing of these emissions comes from the reducing use of fuel oil (BBM) of 547 kilo liters per day, from the previous of 2,190 kilo liters per day to 1,642 kilo liters per day. Not only saving fuel, but the use of gas also saves the maintenance costs. Besides, the machine will have a stronger and longer use.
The Indonesian government plans to build a similar Diesel and Gas Power Plant in some areas in Indonesia. Currently, the feasibility study for the project is in the process. In the next few years the number of gas power plants will continue to increase.
After coming out of the operator room, President Jokowi was surrounded by Journalists. He then described the LNG mini terminal project which was completely built after nearly 16 months of work. "It was built to replace the previous power plant, from diesel transferred to gas. It can save up to 4 billion per day. It's very efficient once, if there isn't any problem in the future I suppose that the diesel ones in the island will be removed one by one, we will transfer to the gas, "president Jokowi said
Furthermore, the leader that is famous to be close with the ordinary people also said that the construction of the Diesel and Gas Power Plant can be performed faster than the Steam and Coal Power Plant "the coal one may need four to five years. But the gas power plant may only need seven to eight months. It's fast," he said.
The government itself has budgeted 2 trillion for the power plant with new and renewed energy here in Bali. "First, we want to speed up, the second about the issue of costs that we have seen to be more efficient, and the third is about the problem of this new and renewed energy to be recorded," he said.
President Jokowi added that such a project like this will certainly help to accelerate the government's target in the national electricity supply with a join financing scheme between the State-owned and private companies. "There is a Public-Private Partnership that means private investors can get in. But there's also the do it by itself, so the combination. The combination that is accelerating," he said.
Next to Jokowi, thereme was the president Director of PLN Sofyan Basir. He explained: "PLN will continue to support government programs in the field of environment and new and reneuwed energy. This is proved by the other benefits of using the mini LNG for the Diesel and Gas Power Plant of Pesanggaran of 200 MW that is capable to save the operational costs up to $ 60 billion per year, "said PLN President Director Sofyan Basir in his speech.
PLN also believes that this Diesel and Gas Power Plant of Pesanggaran that is supplied from the mini LNG can be ascertainedly improve the reliability of supply in Java-Bali electricity system and the most important one is the use of cleaner energy. "Because, if you continue with petroleum emissions, it will be not environmentally friendly, it is noisy, polluting and doesn't have optimal electrical products. Gas is clean and not noisy and it has ptimal products" he said.
In a room of Bali Daily Tribune, the largest newspaper published in Bali, I met Komang Agus Ruspawan and Made Gili. Komang is the managing editor of Bali Tribune, a newspaper of Kompas Gramedia Group network. And Made Gili is one of the activists of a non-governmental organization that is quite famous in Bali.
In the office located on Prof Ida Bagus Mantra Street, we discussed about the recent ecological conditions of Bali that is considered poor. We talked about the reclamation of Benoa Bay that is considered as a threat to the ecological conditions of Bali. Until now, the reclamation policy of Benoa brought protests from environmental activists. Many people are objected with the reclamation policy that can be fatal for the environment of Bali.
When talking about the power plant of Pesanggaran, they both agreed on one thing; The plant brings a new hope for the efforts of restoring Bali environment. They hoped that all power plants can be environmentally friendly; not contributing air pollution to the environment of Bali. "By using gas, we can keep the clean environment and air. It is very helpful for the environmental activists who keep campaigning the clean air to the community, "said Komang.
We also discussed the question of whether the use of gas as the solution for clean and friendly environment energy gets support from all stakeholders in Bali? Can Bali become a green and clean island? Seeing the massive penetration of economics and capitalism that continues to undermine Bali, the questions are reasonable to ask. Can we draw a midpoint between the interests of investors and the interests of activists and the public who want a green environment as the icon of tourism in Bali?
As one of the best tourism destinations in the world, all improvements should be done in Bali. Since the 19th century, the island has been a famous tourism place among the European nations. Since a long time ago, a lot of people have visited the island as their travel agenda. That is why there are always a lot of tourists from different countries coming to the Island.
Uniquely, even though a lot of people coming, this island never loses its local culture. What appears is a synergy between local culture and global culture. The two cultures are not mutually exclusive, but rather mutually reinforcing. The majority Hindu population of Bali is still a religious one as well as running traditions and religious rituals. They also treat all comers well.
Richard Fox in Critical Reflections on Religion and Media in Contemporary Bali, which published in 2011, said that the base of the Baliness philosophy can be seen from the slogan of Tri Hita Karana, which can be translated as The Three balances or the three harmonies. Those three are: (1) The harmony of human with God, (2) human harmony with other human beings, (3) harmony with the universe and the environment.
The harmony with God is manifested in a number of religious rituals, which are expected to bring blessings and prosperity. The harmony with human beings is created in a co-operation, which is called the mutual assistance, in the scope of the community, to support each other, and to love each other. And the harmony with the universe is done through the actions of preserving the nature, maintaining the environmental sustainability, and sustaining the development.
"The Denial on one of these harmonies can make the life not balanced. Disasters can occur at any time. The universe can provide the response of disasters, "said Made Gili.
This is the reason why the Baliness people are required to always preserve the environment. Because, maintaining the clean environment and air is the part of a spiritual responsibility, that should be fulfilled by the Baliness.
The Baliness realize about the importance of ecological sustainability. They believe in the law of the balance of the universe. One who treats nature properly will have a better quality of life. Instead, treating nature badly can lead to disasters in the future. The Balinese believe in the concept of karma, that says that any action a person takes will always bring a consequence for the person him/herself.
The issue began to emerge when the modernization slowly exploring Bali. The not environmentally friendly machines are everywhere in Bali, causing air pollution. The streets are filled with pollution from motor vehicle exhaust. The air is also increasingly dirty because of the chimney of factory machineries. Not only that, the existence of the power plant also increases the pollution because of the dependence on fossil fuel that is not environmentally friendly.
In recent years, the discussion about the need to restore Bali to be greener and cleaner have been commonplace. The climax was in the meeting of the 11th World Environment (Global Environment Forum) held in Bali in February 2010, the government formulated the Bali Road Map of Clean and Green Bali. The Governor of Bali is obsessed to make Bali as a "Green Province."
The Governor of Bali is committed to make Bali the first Clean and Green Province as in the country. The program is in line with the efforts to conserve the natural environment and Bali is in the middle of the current swift of globalization as the conception of Tri Hita Karana. In the implementation of all society and business communities are expected to be actively involved, especially in their respective environments.
To achieve Bali Green Province, there are three basic components to be considered. The first is a Green Culture. That means to preserve and to develop cultural values (local genius) based on environmental point of view, including various religious activities; the small, the medium or the large ones. The second is the Green Economy. What they try to do is to create a regional economy of Bali that can improve people's welfare but still maintain the preservation of the environment for the present and future generations. The third is the Clean and Green. The sense is to create the clean and green bali, free from pollution and damaged natural resources.
Bali Clean and Green program was born together with many kinds of Bali's environmental problems. A very high pile of rubbish that has reached the urban areas, the pollution of wastewater and air, the reduction in the quantity of water resources, the degraded land inside and outside the forest area, the decreasing of biodiversity, flood and damaged coastal areas.
How big is the effect of the use of environmentally friendly gas for the electricity supply? "In the context of Bali, the availability of gas is important to keep the aspects of the Tri Hana Karana philosophy," said Komang.
For Bali, the convertion is very important because Bali has been proclaimed as an area that must use clean energy by 2019. Some time ago, the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Sudirman Said commented on the building of the plant in Pesanggaran. "This is a very significant milestone for the 200 MW that is equal to 60% of electricity capacity in Bali, so now 60% of electricity in Bali is already supplied with clean energy and it's very, very meaningful," he said.
The use of clean energy has at least three advantages. First, it costs less so the operation of PLN can be more efficient and it hopefully has a good impact on the price of electricity in the community. Second, it is cleaner, so it can reduce pollution. Third, if the operation is big, it can be a model for other regions. "It's a good example of how gas flows from the source of LNG to be then gasified. Such model is very suitable for island nations, "said Sudirman.
Komang and Made Gili Sudirman agreed with the statement. He believed that strategic measures in the energy sector can preserve Bali's environment that now starts to deal with environmental issues. "If we save today, we also save the future. But if we participate to damage our nature today, then we will pay the sins of our history as the destroyer of the future, "said Made Gili.
The weather in Bali is quite hot when I came to the station the next day. I wanted to be the firsthand witness of how the plant works. I wanted to feel the vibration of the engine. I wanted to know what the impact of the machine is for the surrounding community.
I met Oka, one of the engineers working at Wartsila. Oka is a graduate of Gajah Tunggal Polytechnic, one of the leading campuses of technology. After he graduated from that college, Oka continued his education at Mercu Buana University in Jakarta. He took his specialty in electrical engineering. When I met Oka, he was accompanied by his colleague that seemed younger than him. They were both assigned to stand by at the plant, as well as providing technical input to take actions on the generator engine.
Oka served in Bali since a few months ago. Previously, Oka served in several plant areas including the Bangkanai plant in Muara Teweh that was also built by Wartsila. Oka is relatively young, but he's got a lot of experience. He's thoroughly familiar with the generator engine, able to discuss about advantages of various machines, and things to be recorded for improvements.
According to Oka, the plant has been operating since last year. Although the handover has been done, Wartsila remained there for a year as part of the warranty process. However, on June 3 the warranty period has expired. He has not received an order to leave the location for any other work. "I love any challenge of this job. I am ready to be placed everyhere, "he said.
Oka was thrilled when he was asked to explain about the power plant. Since the beginning of its presence in Indonesia, Wärtsila has offered that such of gas engine power plant. The rationalization is that gas is quite efficient to be used in Indonesia. "Our Gas reserve is still much enough and it is very well suited built within the island. This plant is suitable and efficient to be built in remote areas that are difficult to reach, "said Oka.
Besides Bali, Wartsila has also built power plants of Bangkanai in Kalimantan (155 MW) and Arun in Aceh (184 MW). In Bali, Wartsila has introduced the concept of storage and regasification of LNG (liquefied natural gas) just above the barge. This innovative solution provides a flexible means to meet the needs of small to medium scale when land-based LNG selection is so limited. Wartsila combines business experience in the field of Marine solution with energy Solutions to develop this concept.
Oka said, Wartsila has an innovation. That is Wartsila LNG Mobile that is combined with the floating power plant with a capacity of up to 250 MW. This solution can also be used to supply power plants based on conventional landline. This solution will provide LNG to new customer segments and provide benefits for utilities and other users. The main advantages of this solution is the ability to not depend on the location, so as to bring clean energy to areas that only have limited access or no access to the national electricity grid.
So far, Wartsila supports the entire gas value chain, including drilling and production, distribution, gas liquefaction, regasification, storage, and power generation. The latest innovation is becoming one of the important steps to complete our infrastructure deals. Most of the existing facilities currently have provisions for larger-scale users, while Wartsila LNG Mobile offers a flexible and dynamic choice for small to medium-sized needs.
These innovations are developed for difficult locations that do not allow the installation of pipelines and large-scale of LNG terminal, or when the amount of LNG required smaller. This solution is ideal in shallow waters that do not allow the entry of larger ships dock without major construction or operation of the steam shovel.
Compared to conventional land-based terminal building on the soil conditions and a difficult area with underdeveloped infrastructure, investment costs (Capex) for Wartsila Mobile floating LNG are much smaller and the manufacturing is faster. In addition, because it can move, the system can easily move to other locations, thus it provides a higher resale value.
The use of natural gas is the first in Bali. Previously, the electricity used for the tourism industry in Bali and also for the plants was fueled by oil. Gas from PT Pertamina (Persero) was from Sengkang gas field and a liquefied natural gas (LNG) in Bontang, East Kalimantan as much as 40 million cubic feet (MMSCFD) or the equivalent of 35 cargoes. Gas supply is the result of the signing of the Gas Sales Agreement between Pertamina and PT PLN (Persero) in Denpasar, Bali.
Gas is brought into LNG Terminal of Tanjung Benoa. It is regasificated to LNG then to Diesel Power Gas in Pesanggaran. Gas will be supplied to homes and industry through a pipe into a compressed gas (CNG).
Bali is a priority area for the development of city gas network. But until now, the government has not allocated funds for the fulfillment of it. City gas network recently passed Prabumulih located in South Sumatra. The next gas conversion plant would be applied in Gilimanuk and Pemaron. PLN claimed that all plants in the island will be gradually replaced with a fuel gas.
The fuell of gas is the new hope. This energy has proved to be economical and efficient. The use of this energy is also made possible by the multi-party cooperation between PLN and Pertamina, the state--owned Company of Oil and Gas. Pertamina will supply as much as the one cargo standard of LNG, equivalent to 125 thousand m3 which will be brought by Surya Satsums ship with a capacity of 22,500 m3 in six shipments.
LNG is supplied from Bontang LNG Plant and delivered to LNG facilities belongs to Indonesia Power as the subsidiary of PT PLN in cooperation with PT Pelindo III in Benoa area. The LNG facility consists of a Floating Storage Unit (FSU) with a capacity of 26 thousand m3 which will then regasificated using Floating Regasification Unit (FRU). LNG has regatificated to be channeled to supply the power plant of Pesanggaran, Bali.
In this island, new hopes arise The existence of the power plant of Pesanggaran is the beginning of the new era of various environmentally friendly plants. In the future, we will replace more and more fossil power plants to be converted into gas. We will see cleaner and fresh air
Everything starts from Bali, a tourist area that is trying to balance God, human and the universe. If Bali can spread the seeds of loving the environment throughout Indonesia, we will then see green and shady Indonesia in the future. We will smile at children and grand children who still feel how good to breathe clean air in the middle of green trees and sustainable environment, and the urban communities can do their activities without being disturbed by dirty air. And civilization in the future will be more enlightening and happy because today's generation has taken steps wisely and sustainably. (*)
I wrote this article for Wartsila Company in Indonesia. Poor me, they don't like this article. So I post to my blog as reminder that I've been in Bali to collect data and to write this feature news.